Research on Scratch
Research on Scratch is being conducted by members of the MIT Scratch Team and researchers at other universities, including Yasmin Kafai at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, Karen Brennan at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Benjamin Mako Hill at the University of Washington, Andrés Monroy Hernandez at Microsoft Research, Mimi Ito and Crystle Martin at the University of California, Irvine, Quinn Burke at College of Charleston, Deborah Fields at Utah State University, and Kylie Peppler at Indiana University.
By sharing projects and participating in the Scratch online community, you are helping us better understand how people can use and learn with Scratch. Any publicly shared projects, comments, or other material on the Scratch site may be included in the research analysis, presentations, papers, and reports. No personally identifiable information is shared. (If you have any questions, please use the Contact Us form.)
Below are selected research papers, presentations, and theses on Scratch and the Scratch online community, followed by a list of National Science Foundation grants awarded to support Scratch.
Research Papers & Presentations
- Forsgren Velasquez, N., Fields, D. A., Olsen, D., Martin, H. T., Strommer, A., Sheperd, M. C., & Kafai, Y. B. (2014). Novice programmers talking about projects: What automated text analysis reveals about online Scratch users’ comments. In the Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS). Waikoloa, Hawaii. IEEE.
- Choi, B., Jung, J. & Baek, Y. (2013). In what way can technology enhance student learning? : A preliminary study of technology supported learning in mathematics. In R. McBride & M. Searson (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2013 (pp. 3-9). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
- Dasgupta, S. (2013). From surveys to collaborative art: enabling children to program with online data. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC '13).
- Fields, D. A., Giang, M. & Kafai, Y. B. (2013). Understanding collaborative practices in the Scratch online community: Patterns of participation among youth designers. In N. Rummel, M. Kapur, M. Nathan, & S. Puntambekar (Eds), CSCL 2013 Conference Proceedings, Volume 1. International Society of the Learning Sciences: Madison, WI, 200-207.
- Koh, K. (2013). Adolescents’ information-creating behavior embedded in digital media practice using Scratch. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(9), 1826-1841.
- Hill, B M., & Monroy-Hernández, A. (2013). The remixing dilemma: the trade-off between generativity and originality. American Behavioral Scientist, 57-5, Pp. 643—663. [Official Link] [Preprint/Draft PDF] (Press: Wired UK, Boing Boing)
- Hill, B.M. & Monroy-Hernández, A. (2013). The cost of collaboration for code and art: Evidence from a remixing community. Forthcoming in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '13). San Antonio, Texas, USA: ACM. Best Paper Award [Official Link] [Preprint PDF]
- Roque, R., Rusk, N., & Blanton, A. (2013). Youth roles and leadership in an online creative community. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Conference Proceedings, Volume 1, International Society of the Learning Sciences.
- Brennan, K. (2012). Best of Both Worlds: Issues of Structure and Agency in Computational Creation, In and Out of School. PhD Dissertation. MIT Media Lab.
- Brennan, K., and Resnick, M. (2012). New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking. Proceedings of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual conference.
- Burke, Q., and Kafai, Y.B. (2012). The writers’ workshop for youth programmers: Digital storytelling with Scratch in middle school classrooms. Proceedings of the 43rd ACM technical symposium on Computer Science Education, ACM 2012.
- Carini, G. (2012). Finding a Needle in a Haystack: New Ways to Search and Browse on Scratch. Masters Thesis, MIT Media Lab.
- Dasgupta, S. (2012). Learning with Data: A toolkit to democratize the computational exploration of data. Masters Thesis, MIT Media Lab.
- Ericson, B., and McKlin, T. (2012). Effective and sustainable computing summer camps. In SIGCSE '12 Proceedings of the 43rd ACM technical symposium on Computer Science Education (pp. 289-294).
- Hwang, T. (2012). Exploring Real-Time Video Interactivity with Scratch. Masters Thesis. MIT Media Lab
- Monroy-Hernández, A. (2012). Designing for Remixing: Supporting an Online Community of Amateur Creators. PhD Dissertation. MIT Media Lab.
- Peppler, K., & Warschauer, M. (2012). Uncovering literacies, disrupting stereotypes: Examining the (dis)abilities of a child learning to computer program and read. International Journal of Learning and Media, 3(3), 15-41.
- Resnick, M. (2012). Mother's Day, warrior cats, and Digital Fluency: Stories from the Scratch Online Community. Proceedings of the Constructionism 2012 conference. Athens, Greece.
- Rizvi, M., & Humphries, T. (2012). A Scratch-based CS0 course for at-risk computer science majors. 2012 Frontiers in Education Conference Proceedings, IEEE (pp. 1-5).
- Roque, R. (2012) Making Together: Creative Collaboration for Everyone. Masters Thesis, MIT Media Lab
- Monroy-Hernández, A., Hill, B.M., Gonzalez-Rivero, J., boyd, d. (2011). Computers can't give credit: How automatic attribution falls short in an online remixing community. ACM Conference on Human Factors on Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI '11),
- Rizvi, M., Humphries, T., Major, D., Lauzun, H., & Jones, M. (2011). A new CS0 course for at-risk majors. Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T), 2011 24th IEEE-CS Conference (pp. 314-323).
- Brennan, K., Resnick, M., and Monroy-Hernandez, A. (2010). Making projects, making friends: Online community as a catalyst for interactive media creation. New Directions for Youth Development, 2010 (128), 75-83.
- Hill, B.M, Monroy-Hernández, A., Olson, K.R. (2010) Responses to remixing on a social media sharing website. In AAAI International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM '10)
- Maloney, J., Resnick, M., Rusk, N., Silverman, B., Eastmond, E. (2010). The Scratch Programming Language and Environment. ACM Transactions on Computing Education, November 2010.
- Monroy-Hernández, A., and Hill, B. M. (2010). Cooperation and attribution in an online community of young creators. Poster in ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '10)
- Aragon, C. R., Poon, S. S., Monroy-Hernández, A., Aragon, D. (2009). A tale of two online communities: fostering collaboration and creativity in scientists and children. In Proceeding of the seventh ACM conference on Creativity and cognition (C&C '09). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 9-18.
- Brennan, K. (2009). Scratch-Ed: An online community for Scratch educators. CSCL'09 conference proceedings.
- Brennan, K., Monroy-Hernández, A., & Resnick, M. (2009). Scratch: Creating and sharing interactive media. In Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Computer supported collaborative learning - Volume 2 (CSCL'09)
- Monroy-Hernández, A. (2009). Designing a website for creative learning. In: Proceedings of the Web Science 09: Society On-Line, 18-20 March 2009, Athens, Greece.
- Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hernández, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., Millner, A., Rosenbaum, E., Silver, J., Silverman, B., Kafai, Y. (2009). Scratch: Programming for All. Communications of the ACM, November 2009.
- Kafai, Y., Desai, S., Peppler, K., Chiu, G. & Moya, J. (2008). Mentoring Partnerships in a Community Technology Center: A Constructionist Approach for Fostering Equitable Service Learning. Mentoring and Mentorship. [For a copy, please contact Professor Kafai]
- Maloney, J., Peppler, K., Kafai, Y., Resnick, M., and Rusk, N. (2008). Programming by Choice: Urban Youth Learning Programming with Scratch.
- Monroy-Hernández, A. and Resnick, M. (2008). Empowering kids to create and share programmable media. interactions 15, 2 (March 2008), 50-53.
- Kafai, Y.B., Peppler, K.A., & Chiu, G. (2007). High Tech Programmers in Low Income Communities: Creating a Computer Culture in a Community Technology Center. In C. Steinfeld, B. Pentland, M. Ackermann, & N. Contractor (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Communities and Technology (pp. 545-562). New York: Springer.
- Malan, D.J., & Leitner, H.H. (2007). Scratch for budding computer scientists. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 39, 223–227.
- Monroy-Hernández, A. (2007). ScratchR: sharing user-generated programmable media. In Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Interaction design and children (IDC '07). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 167-168.
- Peppler, K. & Kafai, Y. B. (2007). Collaboration, Computation, and Creativity: Media Arts Practices in Urban Youth Culture. In C. Hmelo- Silver & A. O'Donnell (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, New Brunswick, NJ.
- Peppler, K. & Kafai, Y. B. (2007). From SuperGoo to Scratch: Exploring Media Creative Production in an Informal Learning Environment. Journal on Learning, Media, and Technology, 32(2), 149-166. [For a copy, please contact Professor Kafai]
- Peppler, K. A. & Kafai, Y. B. (2007). What video game making can teach us about learning and literacy: Alternative pathways into participatory cultures. Paper to be presented at the Digital International Games Research Association meeting in Tokyo, Japan.
- Resnick, M. (2007). All I Really Need to Know (About Creative Thinking) I Learned (By Studying How Children Learn) in Kindergarten. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, Washington, D.C.
- Resnick, M. (2007). Sowing the Seeds for a More Creative Society. Learning and Leading with Technology.
- Resnick, M., Maloney, J., & Rusk, N. (2006). Scratch and technological fluency (Powerpoint slide 2.5MB).
- Peppler, K., & Kafai, Y. (2005). Creative coding: The role of art and programming in the K-12 educational context.
- Resnick, M., and Silverman, B. (2005). Some Reflections on Designing Construction Kits for Kids. Proceedings of Interaction Design and Children conference, Boulder, CO.
- Maloney, J., Burd, L., Kafai, Y., Rusk, N., Silverman, B., and Resnick, M. (2004). Scratch: A Sneak Preview. Second International Conference on Creating, Connecting, and Collaborating through Computing. Kyoto, Japan, pp. 104-109.
National Science Foundation Grants
- Resnick, M., Rusk, N., & Dasgupta, S. (2013). New Pathways into Data Science: Extending the Scratch Programming Language to Enable Youth to Analyze and Visualize Their Own Learning (NSF DRL-1417663).
- Resnick, M., Ito, M., Gasser, U., & Rusk, N. (2013). Coding for All: Interest-Driven Trajectories to Computational Fluency (NSF IIS-1348876).
- Bers, M., & Resnick, M. (2011). ScratchJr: Computer Programming in Early Childhood Education as a Pathway to Academic Readiness and Success (NSF DRL-1118682).
- Resnick, M., Kafai, Y., Benkler, Y., Rusk, N., Maloney, J., & Monroy-Hernández, A. (2010). Preparing the Next Generation of Computational Thinkers: Transforming Learning and Education Through Cooperation in Decentralized Networks (NSF DRL-1027848).
- Resnick, M., & Brennan, K. (2010). ScratchEd: Working with Teachers to Develop Design-Based Approaches to the Cultivation of Computational Thinking (NSF DRL-1019396)
- Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Rusk, N., & Monroy-Hernández, A. (2010). Scratch 2.0: Cultivating Creativity and Collaboration in the Cloud (NSF IIS-1002713).
- Resnick, M., Kafai, Y., Maloney, J., Rusk, N., & Maeda, J. (2003). A Networked, Media-Rich Programming Environment to Enhance Technological Fluency at After-School Centers in Economically-Disadvantaged Communities (NSF ITR-0325828).