Research on Scratch
Scratch team members from the MIT Media Lab Lifelong Kindergarten Group and at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education are researching how people use and learn from Scratch.
By sharing projects and participating in the Scratch online community, you are helping us better understand how people can use and learn with Scratch. Any publicly shared projects, comments, or other material on the Scratch site may be included in the research analysis, presentations, papers, and reports. No personally identifiable information is shared. (If you have any questions, please use the Contact Us form.)
The following are research papers, presentations, and dissertations and theses that share our findings about Scratch and the Scratch online community. This list also includes some papers conducted on Scratch by other researchers. For magazines and other articles, see Scratch in the News.
Academic Publications & Presentations
- Forsgren Velasquez, N., Fields, D. A., Olsen, D., Martin, H. T., Strommer, A., Sheperd, M. C., & Kafai, Y. B. (2014). Novice programmers talking about projects: What automated text analysis reveals about online Scratch users’ comments. In the Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS). Waikoloa, Hawaii. IEEE.
- Dasgupta, S. (2013). From surveys to collaborative art: enabling children to program with online data. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC '13).
- Fields, D. A., Giang, M. & Kafai, Y. B. (2013). Understanding collaborative practices in the Scratch online community: Patterns of participation among youth designers. In N. Rummel, M. Kapur, M. Nathan, & S. Puntambekar (Eds), CSCL 2013 Conference Proceedings, Volume 1. International Society of the Learning Sciences: Madison, WI, 200-207.
- Hill, B M., & Monroy-Hernández, A. (2013) The remixing dilemma: the trade-off between generativity and originality. American Behavioral Scientist, 57-5, Pp. 643—663. [Official Link] [Preprint/Draft PDF] (Press: Wired UK, Boing Boing)
- Hill, B.M. & Monroy-Hernández, A. (2013) The cost of collaboration for code and art: Evidence from a remixing community. Forthcoming in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '13). San Antonio, Texas, USA: ACM. Best Paper Award [Official Link] [Preprint PDF]
- Roque, R., Rusk, N., & Blanton, A. (2013). Youth roles and leadership in an online creative community. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Conference Proceedings, Volume 1, International Society of the Learning Sciences.
- Brennan, K., and Resnick, M. (2012). New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking. Proceedings of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual conference.
- Burke, Q., and Kafai, Y.B. (2012). The writers’ workshop for youth programmers: Digital storytelling with Scratch in middle school classrooms. Proceedings of the 43rd ACM technical symposium on Computer Science Education, ACM 2012.
- Resnick, M. (2012). Mother's Day, warrior cats, and Digital Fluency: Stories from the Scratch Online Community. Proceedings of the Constructionism 2012 conference. Athens, Greece.
- Monroy-Hernández, A., Hill, B.M., Gonzalez-Rivero, J., boyd, d. (2011). Computers can't give credit: How automatic attribution falls short in an online remixing community. ACM Conference on Human Factors on Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI '11),
- Brennan, K., Resnick, M., and Monroy-Hernandez, A. (2010). Making projects, making friends: Online community as a catalyst for interactive media creation. New Directions for Youth Development, 2010 (128), 75-83.
- Hill, B.M, Monroy-Hernández, A., Olson, K.R. (2010) Responses to remixing on a social media sharing website. In AAAI International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM '10)
- Maloney, J., Resnick, M., Rusk, N., Silverman, B., Eastmond, E. (2010). The Scratch Programming Language and Environment. ACM Transactions on Computing Education, November 2010.
- Monroy-Hernández, A., and Hill, B. M. (2010) Cooperation and attribution in an online community of young creators. Poster in ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '10)
- Aragon, C. R., Poon, S. S., Monroy-Hernández, A., Aragon, D (2009). A tale of two online communities: fostering collaboration and creativity in scientists and children. In Proceeding of the seventh ACM conference on Creativity and cognition (C&C '09). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 9-18.
- Brennan, K. (2009). Scratch-Ed: An online community for Scratch educators. CSCL'09 conference proceedings.
- Brennan, K., Monroy-Hernández, A., & Resnick, M. (2009). Scratch: Creating and sharing interactive media. In Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Computer supported collaborative learning - Volume 2 (CSCL'09)
- Monroy-Hernández, A. (2009) Designing a website for creative learning. In: Proceedings of the Web Science 09: Society On-Line, 18-20 March 2009, Athens, Greece.
- Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hernández, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., Millner, A., Rosenbaum, E., Silver, J., Silverman, B., Kafai, Y. (2009). Scratch: Programming for All. Communications of the ACM, November 2009.
- Kafai, Y., Desai, S., Peppler, K., Chiu, G. & Moya, J. (2008). Mentoring Partnerships in a Community Technology Center: A Constructionist Approach for Fostering Equitable Service Learning. Mentoring and Mentorship. [For a copy, please contact Professor Kafai]
- Maloney, J., Peppler, K., Kafai, Y., Resnick, M., and Rusk, N. (2008). Programming by Choice: Urban Youth Learning Programming with Scratch.
- Monroy-Hernández, A. and Resnick, M. (2008). Empowering kids to create and share programmable media. interactions 15, 2 (March 2008), 50-53.
- Kafai, Y.B., Peppler, K.A., & Chiu, G. (2007). High Tech Programmers in Low Income Communities: Creating a Computer Culture in a Community Technology Center. In C. Steinfeld, B. Pentland, M. Ackermann, & N. Contractor (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Communities and Technology (pp. 545-562). New York: Springer.
- Monroy-Hernández, A. (2007) ScratchR: sharing user-generated programmable media. In Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Interaction design and children (IDC '07). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 167-168.
- Peppler, K. & Kafai, Y. B. (2007). Collaboration, Computation, and Creativity: Media Arts Practices in Urban Youth Culture. In C. Hmelo- Silver & A. O'Donnell (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, New Brunswick, NJ.
- Peppler, K. & Kafai, Y. B. (2007). From SuperGoo to Scratch: Exploring Media Creative Production in an Informal Learning Environment. Journal on Learning, Media, and Technology, 32(2), 149-166. [For a copy, please contact Professor Kafai]
- Peppler, K. A. & Kafai, Y. B. (2007). What video game making can teach us about learning and literacy: Alternative pathways into participatory cultures. Paper to be presented at the Digital International Games Research Association meeting in Tokyo, Japan.
- Resnick, M. (2007). All I Really Need to Know (About Creative Thinking) I Learned (By Studying How Children Learn) in Kindergarten. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, Washington, D.C.
- Resnick, M. (2007). Sowing the Seeds for a More Creative Society. Learning and Leading with Technology.
- Resnick, M., Maloney, J., & Rusk, N. (2006). Scratch and technological fluency (Powerpoint slide 2.5MB).
- Peppler, K., & Kafai, Y. (2005). Creative coding: The role of art and programming in the K-12 educational context.
- Resnick, M., and Silverman, B. (2005). Some Reflections on Designing Construction Kits for Kids. Proceedings of Interaction Design and Children conference, Boulder, CO.
- Maloney, J., Burd, L., Kafai, Y., Rusk, N., Silverman, B., and Resnick, M. (2004). Scratch: A Sneak Preview. Second International Conference on Creating, Connecting, and Collaborating through Computing. Kyoto, Japan, pp. 104-109.
- Resnick, M., Kafai, Y., Maeda, J. (2003). A Networked, Media-Rich Programming Environment to Enhance Technological Fluency at After-School Centers in Economically-Disadvantaged Communities. Proposal to National Science Foundation.
Dissertations and Theses
- Brennan, K. (2012). Best of Both Worlds: Issues of Structure and Agency in Computational Creation, In and Out of School. PhD Dissertation. MIT Media Lab.
- Carini, G. (2012). Finding a Needle in a Haystack: New Ways to Search and Browse on Scratch. Masters Thesis, MIT Media Lab.
- Dasgupta, S. (2012). Learning with Data: A toolkit to democratize the computational exploration of data. Masters Thesis, MIT Media Lab.
- Monroy-Hernández, A. (2012). Designing for Remixing: Supporting an Online Community of Amateur Creators. PhD Dissertation. MIT Media Lab.
- Roque, R. (2012) Making Together: Creative Collaboration for Everyone. Masters Thesis, MIT Media Lab
Academic Publications by Other Researchers and Educators
- Choi, B., Jung, J. & Baek, Y. (2013). In what way can technology enhance student learning? : A preliminary study of technology supported learning in mathematics. In R. McBride & M. Searson (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2013 (pp. 3-9). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
- Ericson, B., and McKlin, T. (2012). Effective and sustainable computing summer camps. In SIGCSE '12 Proceedings of the 43rd ACM technical symposium on Computer Science Education (pp. 289-294).
- Koh, K. (2013). Adolescents’ information-creating behavior embedded in digital media practice using Scratch. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(9), 1826-1841.
- Peppler, K., & Warschauer, M. (2012). Uncovering literacies, disrupting stereotypes: Examining the (dis)abilities of a child learning to computer program and read. International Journal of Learning and Media, 3(3), 15-41.
- Rizvi, M., & Humphries, T. (2012). A Scratch-based CS0 course for at-risk computer science majors. 2012 Frontiers in Education Conference Proceedings, IEEE (pp. 1-5).
- Rizvi, M., Humphries, T., Major, D., Lauzun, H., & Jones, M. (2011). A new CS0 course for at-risk majors. Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T), 2011 24th IEEE-CS Conference (pp. 314-323).
- Malan, D.J., & Leitner, H.H. (2007). Scratch for budding computer scientists. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 39, 223–227.